Current Date :June 13, 2024
Automation Programming Languages

Top Automation Programming Languages of 2021

Software development and automation play an important part in producing powerful software applications for companies in today’s increasingly competitive market.

Testers require hands-on experience in at least one automation programming language to get the most out of automated testing. Today, there are plenty of programming languages to pick from, with new ones appearing on a regular basis. Picking the right programming language is important no matter what stage you’re in, whether you’re just starting out with automation testing or you’re an experienced tester looking to acquire a new language. The following are some of the most common languages as of 2021:

1. JavaScript

As per the recent Developer Survey by Stack Overflow, JavaScript secured the top spot for the 8th year in a row as the most commonly employed programming language. It supports test automation to a higher extent, especially for front-end development. Several large websites like Accenture, Instagram, Airbnb, and Slack use JavaScript as their preferred front-end development and automation programming language.

  • It supports the shift-left testing approach where even developers perform an active part in the testing code development process. Here, the testing team operates closely with the development team to achieve efficient test automation.
  • JavaScript and Selenium are used collectively by developers for creating test situations for automated browser testing. 
  • There are several testing frameworks for JavaScript for unit testing and end-to-end testing like Jasmine, Zest, Mocha, Nightwatch JS, etc.

2. Python

As per the statistics, it is the most widespread automation programming language of 2021. It is open-source and has a track record for generating web and desktop applications, machine learning, media tools, network servers, and more. For any business that is just rising up, Python is the most suggested programming language. It provides library support, reliable integration, and control characteristics. Some of the common apps built using Python are Youtube, Pinterest, and Instagram. According to current trends, approximately 2.3 Lakh Live websites (6 Lacs globally and 3.1K in India) are developed using Python. Stack Overflow’s latest developer survey reports that around 70% of developers liked Python as their most preferred programming language because:

  • Python has different libraries that help developers perform any task without putting much effort into writing the code.
  • It has a strong Python Community.
  • It is object-oriented.
  • Python is relatively portable and an easy-to-learn automation programming language, making it the most suitable choice for beginners.
  • Selenium-Appium Libraries for Python form automation and cross-browser testing on mobile and desktop simpler. The most popular Python testing frameworks are PyTest and PyUnit employed in Selenium automation testing for cross-browser automation testing.
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3. Java

It is among the common general-purpose automation programming languages recognized by Oracle Corporation. Applitools Survey reports Java to manage its lead with 43% of its users opting for Java as their go-to language for generating their tests. Companies use Java to maintain back-end systems. More than 3 billion devices are operating applications built on Java. It comes with complete test frameworks, packages, and knowledge sources making it one of the most reliable automation programming languages. Google. Netflix, Pinterest, Instagram are a few big names that employ Java.

  • It presents its users with built-in open-source libraries, easy integration, a powerful command line, IDE Support, etc.
  • It is an Object-Oriented Language that runs on Write Once Run Anywhere principle, delivering flexibility to many cross-browser platforms.
  • It enables easy integration of JUnit with Selenium Webdriver to automate tests for web applications.
  • It also gives short test cases to the software developers.

4. C#

C# is created by Microsoft. It is regarded as one of the best automation programming languages. 67% of the users, as stated by Stack Overflow Developer Survey, prefer C# for their development and automation requirements. This language has displayed a gradual growing trend as a test automation language. There are several test automation frameworks in C# like NUnit, MSTest, and xUnit.Net support automation and cross-browser testing. Also, many testers favor C# due to its compatibility with Selenium WebDriver. Organizations like Microsoft, Delivery Hero and Accenture include C# in their tech stack.

  • It is an Object-Oriented and structured programming language.
  • It is mostly employed on Windows but is also accommodated for Android and iOS platforms.
  • C-Sharp is a Microsoft company that runs on .Net Framework.
  • Uses Page-Object Model (POM) to build efficient and maintainable test code.

5. PHP

Hypertext Preprocessor is a broadly used command-line, a server-side scripting language employed for web development and test automation. It is most regularly used for mobile applications that need database access. More than 34 Lac live websites use PHP as their chosen Automation Programming Language. Popular companies like Wikipedia, Facebook, and Yahoo use PHP for their website. PHP encourages the development of content-heavy e-commerce websites, and dynamic web and mobile apps. The most popular PHP testing frameworks are  Laravel Dusk,  BeHat, Codeception, PHPUnit, suggesting extraordinary benefits in the automation process. XDebug, a continuation of PHP, is a powerful debugging tool that enhances the PHP development experience.

  • PHP is flexible and easily linkable with HTML /HTML5.
  • Gives great error handling features.
  • It is a platform-independent language.
  • It has a great community support system.

6. Ruby

Another common Automation programming language is Ruby, which has shown an upward trend in the areas of automation. Ruby has seen a thriving community of user bases in recent years. Ruby operates well with the Selenium framework, hence it is regarded as a necessary component for executing Selenium automation testing. Getting started with Ruby-Selenium is easy as it builds a comfortable environment for managing your first cross-browser test with Selenium Webdriver using fewer lines of code. Popular websites using Ruby are Bloomberg, Airbnb, Twitter, and Shopify.

  • It is an Object-Oriented and back-end scripting programming language.
  • It is a human-friendly, simple-to-learn language encouraging MVC Architecture and enabling automated deployment.

Also Read: Test Automation Problems Plaguing QA Teams


The data above illustrates the recent best automation programming languages for test automation that have a larger user base. However, the trends continue changing with time. Apart from the above-mentioned languages, several other growing programming languages can be recognized while making a choice. The selection of programming languages differs from organization to organization and depends on the choice of the testers. May you learn any programming language to make your testing ability more powerful, but the main purpose is to automate the test completely, identify and report errors in advance, without human intervention, and be able to build reusable tests. It should assure that the end product proves to be the strength of the company instead of a weakness.

Need to implement automation testing in your project? Think no more! TestUnity provides the testing services on-demand, serves with projects of any scale, and is ready to start with a few days’ advance notice. Choose to team up with a QA services provider like TestUnity. Our team of testing experts specializes in QA and has years of experience implementing tests with different testing software. Get in touch with a TestUnity expert today.


Testunity is a SaaS-based technology platform driven by a vast community of testers & QAs spread around the world, powered by technology & testing experts to create the dedicated testing hub. Which is capable of providing almost all kind of testing services for almost all the platforms exists in software word.

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