GraphQL is a query language for your API and a server-side runtime for performing queries by using a type system that you define for your data. It was developed by Facebook to optimize RESTful API calls. They have been using it internally and in production for quite a time now, and recently they have published a specification for it, which has received a positive response from the developer community. Companies like GitHub, Pinterest, and Coursera, have also started adopting it and using externally and internally.
GraphQL isn’t attached to any specific database or storage engine but is instead backed by your existing code and data. GraphQL provides a complete and coherent description of the data in your API, It gives clients the power to ask for exactly what they need, makes it easier to develop APIs over time, and enables powerful developer tools.
Characteristics of GraphQL API are as follows:
- GraphQL is a query language designed for client applications to fetch the exact data needed from an API.
- GraphQL allows client applications to describe the shape and type of data required from a backend API.
- GraphQL enables client applications to call a single endpoint for any type of request.
- GraphQL is like SQL, but for the front end.
How to test GraphQL API?
GraphQL is a very powerful technology that will allow your API consumers to access their information in a better way, but in order to ensure that the experience works the way you expect, you need to validate your GraphQL APIs. This is where test automation comes in.
Most functional GraphQL testing is designed to ensure that the schema, queries, and mutations work as-expected on the front-end. There are many tools available to run these kinds of tests depending on your language, platform, and test infrastructure, and according to specific testing requirements.
There are a few different types of tests that can be used to test the GraphQL API:
- Query tests: Query tests ensure that a given query (and any parameter(s)) returns the correct response.
- Mutation tests: Mutation tests ensure that a given query (and any parameter(s)) successfully save data in a database.
- Load tests: Load tests ensure that an API remains performant (within SLAs) with a high number of requests.
- Security tests: Security tests ensure that APIs don’t return sensitive data without necessary precautions.
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